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From "The World Trade Organisation: An Australian Guide", 2006 Edition

1) Caroline Lucas MEP & Colin Hines, "Time to Replace Globalisation: A Green Localist Manifesto for the World Trade Organisation Ministerial", The Greens/European Free Alliance in the European Parliament:

2) United Nations Development Program, 2005 Human Development Report:

3) Ashley Seager, "UN: trade rise is hurting poorest", The Guardian, Friday May 28, 2004:,7369,1226636,00.html

4) Scorecard on Development: 25 Years of Diminished Progress by Mark Weisbrot, Dean Baker, and David Rosnick, Sept. 2005: Josh Gordon, "In the red corner... lower wages", The Age, October 19, 2005: and data from Australian Bureau of Statistics, "5204.0 Australian System of National Accounts" 7/11/05.

5) Stephen Byers, “I was wrong. Free market trade policies hurt the poor “, The Guardian, Monday May 19, 2003,,7369,958791,00.html

6) Joseph Stiglitz, "Globalisation and its Discontents" Penguin, 2002, p. 7.

7) Graph drawn from United Nations Development Program, "Making Global Trade Work for People", Chapter 1:

8) UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, "Trends in World and Agricultural Trade":

9) AV Krebs, "It is plain, Cargill's reign in the grain trade has become profane' Agribusiness Examiner 9 Nov 1998.

10) David Korten, "Creating a Post-Corporate World", E. F. Schumacher Society, Oct 2000:

11) UNICEF, "State of the World's Children 2000":

12) Lishala C. Situmbeko and Jack Jones Zulu, "Zambia: Condemned to Debt", World, Development Movement, April 2004:

13) NIEIR Industry Assistance Reductions and the Australian Economy: Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects, July 2000,

14) Prime Minister John Howard, Address to Queensland State Council, Hilton Hotel, Brisbane, 12 November 2005:

15) UN Environment Program, "Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Rice Sector" 2005:

16) Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, "Agrifood Globalisation and Asia":

17) Mary Jordan and Kevin Sullivan, "Trade Brings Riches, but Not to Mexico's Poor" Washington Post, March 22, 2003:

18) "Mexican Agriculture Wiped Out by Uncle Sam" Global Envision:

19) Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), "Australian Commodity Statistics 2004".

20) National Land and Water Resource Audit, "Australian Agriculture Assessment 2001":

21) Andrew Downie, "Destruction of Amazon reaches record level", The Age, May 21, 2005.

22) UN Environment Program, "Landmark report urges governance reforms to arrest accelerating decline of world’s environment", 10 July 2003:

23) UN Development Program, "Biodiversity and Development: Context":, Anil Ananthaswamy, "Earth faces sixth mass extinction" New Scientist, 18 March 2004:

24) UN Environment Program, "UNEP Warns of Trade Liberalisation Failure if Environment Forgotten", 20 September 2005,

25) Australian Bureau of Statistics, "Exports of agricultural production", 17/08/2000:[email protected]/0/412d2b3bb1dfb96cca25693e002160b5?OpenDocument

26) Australian Government, Department of Environment & Heritage, "Australia State of the Environment 2001 Report":

27) Barney Foran and Franzi Poldy, CSIRO Resource Futures, "Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia’s population, technology, resources and environment", 2002, p. 192,

28) "Pollution threatens Great Barrier Reef", Reuters, 26 Feb 2003,,6119,2-13_1325320,00.html

29) Barney Foran and Franzi Poldy, CSIRO Resource Futures, "Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia’s population, technology, resources and environment", 2002, p. 115,

30) Australian Greenhouse Office figures show that the production of commodities for export accounted for 153 470 Gg of CO-e greenhouse gas emissions, or 29% of Australia's total greenhouse emissions in 1999 (see "Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990, 1995 and 1999, End Use Allocation of Emissions").

On top of this, the Australian Bureau of Statistics' "Energy and greenhouse gas emissions accounts, Australia, 1992-93 to 1997-98" shows that services produced for export added to 15,264 Gg of CO-e greenhouse gas emissions, or approx. 3% of Australia's total emissions. Forest land converted to Cropland and Grassland, about 70% of which is for the production of exports, adds another 53,300 Gg of CO2, according to the AGO, or approximately 5% of total emissions.

Adding the totals of commodity production, service provision and land-use changes specifically for export markets gives a total of approx 37% of total emissions attributable to exports.

31) National Association of Forest Industries, "Facts and Figures":

32) James Corbett & Paul Fischbeck, "Emissions from Ships", Science, 31st October 1997.

33) Edward Goldsmith, "Can the environment survive the global economy?" The Ecologist Vol. 27 No. 6, 1997:

34) Public Citizen, "The World Trade Organization Ruling Against the Reformulated Gasoline Regulations of the U.S. Clean Air Act":

35) Martin Khor, "Letter Sent by 11 Countries to WTO Chair Criticising Green Room Process" News from Geneva,
November 15, 1999:

36) "NGOs Call on Trade Ministers to Reject Closed WTO Process" WTO Watch, November 4, 2002:

37) UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, "Some Issues Relating to Food Security in the Context of the WTO Negotiations on Agriculture", Discussion paper, Geneva, July 2001:

38) "Fine words - now we need action", The Guardian, November 15, 2005:,2763,1642768,00.html

39) "WTO status hurts China's rural poor: World Bank" Agence France-Presse, February 22, 2005:

40) Jonathan Watts, "China admits first rise in poverty since 1978", The Guardian, July 20, 2004:,7369,1264917,00.html

41) Jonathan Watts, "Suicide blights China's young adults", The Guardian, July 26, 2005:,7369,1536141,00.html

42) Alan Tracy, "Trade Policy Statement" US Wheat Associates:

43) See for example "CSIRO abandons research into GM peas" ABC Radio National, PM, 18 November, 2005:

44) Ian Black, "Europe ready to open the door to labelled GM foods", The Guardian, July 2, 2003:,2763,989113,00.html

45) Steve Suppan, "U.S. vs. EC Biotech Products Case: WTO Dispute Backgrounder", Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy, Sept 2005:

46) Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, "Agricultural Biotechnology: Let's Talk" 2005,

47) Tim Colebatch, "Tough quarantine laws provoke EU dust-up", The Age, April 2, 2003,

48) Gillian Bradford, "NZ takes Australia's apple ban to WTO", ABC News Online, June 30, 2005: More:

49) "Aussie Stars Buck Trade Off", Workers Online, 25 July 2003:

50) Maude Barlow, "A GATS Primer", Council of Canadians,

51) World Trade Organisation, "General Agreement on Trade in Services", Article VI.4 :

52) World Trade Organisation, "Module 6: FAQs":

53) World Trade Organisation, "United States – Measures Affecting the Cross-border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services: Report of the Panel", Doc No. WT/DS285/R, 10 November 2004:

54) William Birnbauer, "The Big Pong Down Under", Centre for Public Integrity, February 14, 2003:

55) George Monbiot, "A Corporate Aristocracy", The Guardian, 21 March 2001:

56) Ted Murphy "A Guide to the GATS and how it affects Higher Education", National Tertiary Education Union:

57) Gabriella Coslovich, "Film,TV industry reeling" The Age, March 5, 2004:

58) Professor Jane Kelsey, "Lessons from New Zealand: The Saga of the GATS and Local Content Quotas" Paper for the Conference on Cultural Diversity, Paris, 2-4 February 2003:

59) Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD), "Rough guide to the World Trade Organisation", June 2003:

60) Ruchi Tripathi "Implications of TRIPs on livelihoods of poor farmers in developing countries", ActionAid, 13th October 2000:

61) Joseph Stiglitz, "Intellectual-Property Rights and Wrongs", Project Syndicate, August 2005:

62) Oxfam UK, "Formula for Fairness: Patient Rights Before Patent Rights", July 2001:

63) AfricaFocus Bulletin, "India/Africa: Threat to Generic Drugs", Mar 7, 2005:

64) "Bangladesh looking for African markets to export medicines", Bangladesh Observer, April 01 2005:

65) "A guide to the post-2005 world: TRIPS, R&D and access to medicines", Medecins Sans Frontiers, 25 Feb 2005.

66) "India overturns patent laws", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Lateline, 23 May 2005:

67) See for example "Percy Schmeiser's battle", CBC News Online, May 21, 2004:

68) Joseph DiGangi, "REACH and the Long Arm of the Chemical Industry", Multinational Monitor, September 2004: & "Washington Works to Weaken European Chemicals Policy at WTO", Environment News Service, June 24, 2004:

69) Friends of the Earth International, "What you need to know about "NAMA": Why the WTO’s non-agricultural market access negotiations threaten both environment and development" October 2004:

70) Ha-Joon Chang, "Kicking Away the Ladder: The "Real" History of Free Trade", Foreign Policy in Focus, December 2003 :

71) Alexandra Strickner and Carin Smaller, "Geneva Update: THE TWISTS AND TURNS OF TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: HONG KONG APPROACHES", Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy, 6th October, 2005:

72) Public Services International, "The Doha Development Round: a recipe for the massive destruction of livelihoods, mass unemployment and the degradation of work" 2005:

73) Friends of the Earth International, "Summary of analysis of notifications of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations of the World Trade Organization", May 2005:

74) Oxfam, "US farm subsidies offer 'smoke and mirrors'", Oct 10 2005:

75) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, pp. 6-7:

76) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, p. 4:

77) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, p. 16:

78) La Via Campesina, "La Via Campesina calls for an end to Doha Round in the WTO", November 18th, 2005:

79) Larry Elliott, "Byers ultimatum for WTO", The Guardian, January 8, 2000:,2763,195942,00.html

80) George Monbiot, "The Age of Consent: A Manifesto for a New World Order", Perenial, 2004: pp. 181-248.

81) Walden Bello "Deglobalization", Zed Books, 2002.

82) See for instance Daniel C. Esty and Maria H. Ivanova, "Global Environmental Institutions: Perspectives on Reform", Royal Institute or International Affairs, August 2002:

83) The Oakland Institute, "Eye on Hong Kong" December 2005:

84) Joseph Stiglitz, "Globalisation and its Discontents" Penguin, 2002, p. 9.

85) FairTrade Labelling Organisation "Annual Report 2004/05".

86) FairTrade Labelling Organisations International:

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