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References

From "The World Trade Organisation: An Australian Guide", 2006 Edition

1) Caroline Lucas MEP & Colin Hines, "Time to Replace Globalisation: A Green Localist Manifesto for the World Trade Organisation Ministerial", The Greens/European Free Alliance in the European Parliament: http://www.greenparty.org.uk/files/reports/2004/Time%20to%20Replace%20Globalisation.html

2) United Nations Development Program, 2005 Human Development Report: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_complete.pdf

3) Ashley Seager, "UN: trade rise is hurting poorest", The Guardian, Friday May 28, 2004: http://www.guardian.co.uk/globalisation/story/0,7369,1226636,00.html

4) Scorecard on Development: 25 Years of Diminished Progress by Mark Weisbrot, Dean Baker, and David Rosnick, Sept. 2005: http://www.cepr.net/publications/development_2005_09.pdf Josh Gordon, "In the red corner... lower wages", The Age, October 19, 2005:
http://www.theage.com.au/news/business/in-the-red-corner-lower-wages/2005/10/18/1129401253812.html and data from Australian Bureau of Statistics, "5204.0 Australian System of National Accounts" 7/11/05.

5) Stephen Byers, “I was wrong. Free market trade policies hurt the poor “, The Guardian, Monday May 19, 2003, http://www.guardian.co.uk/globalisation/story/0,7369,958791,00.html

6) Joseph Stiglitz, "Globalisation and its Discontents" Penguin, 2002, p. 7.

7) Graph drawn from United Nations Development Program, "Making Global Trade Work for People", Chapter 1: http://www.rbf.org/pdf/01-chapter%201.pdf

8) UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, "Trends in World and Agricultural Trade": http://www.fao.org///docrep/003/x7352e/X7352E01.htm

9) AV Krebs, "It is plain, Cargill's reign in the grain trade has become profane' Agribusiness Examiner 9 Nov 1998.

10) David Korten, "Creating a Post-Corporate World", E. F. Schumacher Society, Oct 2000: http://www.schumachersociety.org/publications/korten_00.html

11) UNICEF, "State of the World's Children 2000": http://www.unicef.org/sowc00/panel2a.htm

12) Lishala C. Situmbeko and Jack Jones Zulu, "Zambia: Condemned to Debt", World, Development Movement, April 2004: http://www.wdm.org.uk/campaigns/cambriefs/debt/zambia/zambia.pdf

13) NIEIR Industry Assistance Reductions and the Australian Economy: Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects, July 2000, http://www.nieir.com.au

14) Prime Minister John Howard, Address to Queensland State Council, Hilton Hotel, Brisbane, 12 November 2005: http://pm.gov.au/news/speeches/speech1674.html

15) UN Environment Program, "Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Rice Sector" 2005: http://www.unep.ch/etb/publications/intAssessment/RapSynRice.pdf

16) Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, "Agrifood Globalisation and Asia": http://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/agrifoodasia

17) Mary Jordan and Kevin Sullivan, "Trade Brings Riches, but Not to Mexico's Poor" Washington Post, March 22, 2003: http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/ftaa/625.html

18) "Mexican Agriculture Wiped Out by Uncle Sam" Global Envision: http://www.globalenvision.org/index.php?fuseaction=library.view_details&category=3&itemid=379

19) Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), "Australian Commodity Statistics 2004".

20) National Land and Water Resource Audit, "Australian Agriculture Assessment 2001": http://audit.ea.gov.au/ANRA/agriculture/docs/national/Agriculture_Changing_Face.html

21) Andrew Downie, "Destruction of Amazon reaches record level", The Age, May 21, 2005.

22) UN Environment Program, "Landmark report urges governance reforms to arrest accelerating decline of world’s environment", 10 July 2003: http://www.grida.no/newsroom.cfm?pressReleaseItemID=768

23) UN Development Program, "Biodiversity and Development: Context": http://www.undp.org/biodiversity/context.html, Anil Ananthaswamy, "Earth faces sixth mass extinction" New Scientist, 18 March 2004: http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4797

24) UN Environment Program, "UNEP Warns of Trade Liberalisation Failure if Environment Forgotten", 20 September 2005, http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=452&ArticleID=4953&l=en

25) Australian Bureau of Statistics, "Exports of agricultural production", 17/08/2000: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/[email protected]/0/412d2b3bb1dfb96cca25693e002160b5?OpenDocument

26) Australian Government, Department of Environment & Heritage, "Australia State of the Environment 2001 Report": http://www.deh.gov.au/soe/2001

27) Barney Foran and Franzi Poldy, CSIRO Resource Futures, "Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia’s population, technology, resources and environment", 2002, p. 192, http://www.cse.csiro.au/research/Program5/publications/futuredilemmas6.pdf

28) "Pollution threatens Great Barrier Reef", Reuters, 26 Feb 2003, http://www.news24.com/News24/Technology/0,6119,2-13_1325320,00.html

29) Barney Foran and Franzi Poldy, CSIRO Resource Futures, "Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia’s population, technology, resources and environment", 2002, p. 115, http://www.cse.csiro.au/research/Program5/publications/futuredilemmas5.pdf

30) Australian Greenhouse Office figures show that the production of commodities for export accounted for 153 470 Gg of CO-e greenhouse gas emissions, or 29% of Australia's total greenhouse emissions in 1999 (see "Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990, 1995 and 1999, End Use Allocation of Emissions").

On top of this, the Australian Bureau of Statistics' "Energy and greenhouse gas emissions accounts, Australia, 1992-93 to 1997-98" shows that services produced for export added to 15,264 Gg of CO-e greenhouse gas emissions, or approx. 3% of Australia's total emissions. Forest land converted to Cropland and Grassland, about 70% of which is for the production of exports, adds another 53,300 Gg of CO2, according to the AGO, or approximately 5% of total emissions.

Adding the totals of commodity production, service provision and land-use changes specifically for export markets gives a total of approx 37% of total emissions attributable to exports.

31) National Association of Forest Industries, "Facts and Figures": http://www.nafi.com.au/faq/index.php3?fact=9

32) James Corbett & Paul Fischbeck, "Emissions from Ships", Science, 31st October 1997.

33) Edward Goldsmith, "Can the environment survive the global economy?" The Ecologist Vol. 27 No. 6, 1997: http://www.edwardgoldsmith.com/page47.html

34) Public Citizen, "The World Trade Organization Ruling Against the Reformulated Gasoline Regulations of the U.S. Clean Air Act": http://www.citizen.org/trade/wto/Dispute/articles.cfm?ID=5499

35) Martin Khor, "Letter Sent by 11 Countries to WTO Chair Criticising Green Room Process" News from Geneva,
November 15, 1999: http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/bwi-wto/wto99/letter.htm

36) "NGOs Call on Trade Ministers to Reject Closed WTO Process" WTO Watch, November 4, 2002: http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/int/wto/2002/1104reject.htm

37) UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, "Some Issues Relating to Food Security in the Context of the WTO Negotiations on Agriculture", Discussion paper, Geneva, July 2001: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y3733E/y3733e02.htm

38) "Fine words - now we need action", The Guardian, November 15, 2005: http://www.guardian.co.uk/wto/article/0,2763,1642768,00.html

39) "WTO status hurts China's rural poor: World Bank" Agence France-Presse, February 22, 2005: http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/wto/2879.html

40) Jonathan Watts, "China admits first rise in poverty since 1978", The Guardian, July 20, 2004: http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,7369,1264917,00.html

41) Jonathan Watts, "Suicide blights China's young adults", The Guardian, July 26, 2005: http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,7369,1536141,00.html

42) Alan Tracy, "Trade Policy Statement" US Wheat Associates: http://www.uswheat.org/tradePolicy/doc/DEAB45BD4A90677D85256F8100587626?OpenDocument

43) See for example "CSIRO abandons research into GM peas" ABC Radio National, PM, 18 November, 2005: http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2005/s1510290.htm

44) Ian Black, "Europe ready to open the door to labelled GM foods", The Guardian, July 2, 2003: http://www.guardian.co.uk/gmdebate/Story/0,2763,989113,00.html

45) Steve Suppan, "U.S. vs. EC Biotech Products Case: WTO Dispute Backgrounder", Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy, Sept 2005: http://www.tradeobservatory.org/library.cfm?refid=76644

46) Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, "Agricultural Biotechnology: Let's Talk" 2005, http://www.daff.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/pdf/industry_dev/Biotech_6.pdf

47) Tim Colebatch, "Tough quarantine laws provoke EU dust-up", The Age, April 2, 2003, http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/01/1048962756191.html

48) Gillian Bradford, "NZ takes Australia's apple ban to WTO", ABC News Online, June 30, 2005: More: http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200506/s1404365.htm

49) "Aussie Stars Buck Trade Off", Workers Online, 25 July 2003: http://workers.labor.net.au/188/news9_trade.html

50) Maude Barlow, "A GATS Primer", Council of Canadians, http://www.canadians.org/trade/issues/WTO/1999/GATS_primer.html

51) World Trade Organisation, "General Agreement on Trade in Services", Article VI.4 : http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/26-gats_01_e.htm

52) World Trade Organisation, "Module 6: FAQs": http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/eol/e/wto06/wto6_43.htm

53) World Trade Organisation, "United States – Measures Affecting the Cross-border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services: Report of the Panel", Doc No. WT/DS285/R, 10 November 2004: http://www.wto.org/English/tratop_e/dispu_e/285r_e.pdf

54) William Birnbauer, "The Big Pong Down Under", Centre for Public Integrity, February 14, 2003: http://www.publicintegrity.org/water/report.aspx?aid=59

55) George Monbiot, "A Corporate Aristocracy", The Guardian, 21 March 2001: http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2001/03/21/a-corporate-aristocracy

56) Ted Murphy "A Guide to the GATS and how it affects Higher Education", National Tertiary Education Union: http://uq.nteu.org.au/freestyler/gui/files//file400dbe030834d.pdf

57) Gabriella Coslovich, "Film,TV industry reeling" The Age, March 5, 2004: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/03/04/1078378907831.html

58) Professor Jane Kelsey, "Lessons from New Zealand: The Saga of the GATS and Local Content Quotas" Paper for the Conference on Cultural Diversity, Paris, 2-4 February 2003: http://www.arena.org.nz/gatspari.htm

59) Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD), "Rough guide to the World Trade Organisation", June 2003: http://www.cafod.org.uk/policy_and_analysis/policy_papers/rough_guides/wto

60) Ruchi Tripathi "Implications of TRIPs on livelihoods of poor farmers in developing countries", ActionAid, 13th October 2000: http://www.actionaid.org.uk/content_document.asp?doc_id=240

61) Joseph Stiglitz, "Intellectual-Property Rights and Wrongs", Project Syndicate, August 2005: http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/stiglitz61

62) Oxfam UK, "Formula for Fairness: Patient Rights Before Patent Rights", July 2001: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/health/cb_pfizer.htm

63) AfricaFocus Bulletin, "India/Africa: Threat to Generic Drugs", Mar 7, 2005: http://www.africafocus.org/docs05/ind0503.php

64) "Bangladesh looking for African markets to export medicines", Bangladesh Observer, April 01 2005: http://www.bangladeshobserveronline.com/new/2005/04/01/economic.htm

65) "A guide to the post-2005 world: TRIPS, R&D and access to medicines", Medecins Sans Frontiers, 25 Feb 2005.

66) "India overturns patent laws", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Lateline, 23 May 2005: http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2005/s1375260.htm

67) See for example "Percy Schmeiser's battle", CBC News Online, May 21, 2004: http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/genetics_modification/percyschmeiser.html

68) Joseph DiGangi, "REACH and the Long Arm of the Chemical Industry", Multinational Monitor, September 2004: http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2004/09012004/september04corp3.html & "Washington Works to Weaken European Chemicals Policy at WTO", Environment News Service, June 24, 2004: http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2004/2004-06-24-03.asp

69) Friends of the Earth International, "What you need to know about "NAMA": Why the WTO’s non-agricultural market access negotiations threaten both environment and development" October 2004: http://www.foei.org/publications/pdfs/NAMAenvironmentFINAL.pdf

70) Ha-Joon Chang, "Kicking Away the Ladder: The "Real" History of Free Trade", Foreign Policy in Focus, December 2003 : http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/trade/2003/12historyoftrade.pdf

71) Alexandra Strickner and Carin Smaller, "Geneva Update: THE TWISTS AND TURNS OF TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: HONG KONG APPROACHES", Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy, 6th October, 2005: http://lists.iatp.org/listarchive/archive.cfm?id=113589

72) Public Services International, "The Doha Development Round: a recipe for the massive destruction of livelihoods, mass unemployment and the degradation of work" 2005: http://www.world-psi.org/wtoandjobs

73) Friends of the Earth International, "Summary of analysis of notifications of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations of the World Trade Organization", May 2005: http://www.foeeurope.org/publications/2005/NTBsanalysisrev3.pdf

74) Oxfam, "US farm subsidies offer 'smoke and mirrors'", Oct 10 2005: http://www.oxfam.org/en/news/pressreleases/2005/pr051010_us_trade

75) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, pp. 6-7: http://www.maketradefair.com/assets/english/report_english.pdf

76) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, p. 4: http://www.maketradefair.com/assets/english/report_english.pdf

77) Oxfam, "Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation and the Fight Against Poverty", 2002, p. 16: http://www.maketradefair.com/assets/english/report_english.pdf

78) La Via Campesina, "La Via Campesina calls for an end to Doha Round in the WTO", November 18th, 2005: http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=246&Itemid=136

79) Larry Elliott, "Byers ultimatum for WTO", The Guardian, January 8, 2000: http://www.guardian.co.uk/wto/article/0,2763,195942,00.html

80) George Monbiot, "The Age of Consent: A Manifesto for a New World Order", Perenial, 2004: pp. 181-248.

81) Walden Bello "Deglobalization", Zed Books, 2002.

82) See for instance Daniel C. Esty and Maria H. Ivanova, "Global Environmental Institutions: Perspectives on Reform", Royal Institute or International Affairs, August 2002: http://www.riia.org/pdf/briefing_papers/Global%20Environmental%20Institutions%202002.pdf

83) The Oakland Institute, "Eye on Hong Kong" December 2005: http://www.oaklandinstitute.org/?q=node/view/251

84) Joseph Stiglitz, "Globalisation and its Discontents" Penguin, 2002, p. 9.

85) FairTrade Labelling Organisation "Annual Report 2004/05".

86) FairTrade Labelling Organisations International: http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/impact/facts.html


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